ELASSD

Marvin Jessop

Dave K.

Geo 101

7/25/16

Week 4 GeoVids

Earth Revealed 13

This episode was about the volcanic process and how tectonic plate boundaries is related to that process. The video starts opened with the discovery of volcanoes on other planets in our solar system, like Venus. Volcano’s are partly responsible for providing atmospheres on planets. The video went on about how volcanoes give us clues about what is happening inside the Earth. Volcanoes are the product of the pressure buildup of molten magma that is being forced up because of the more dense surrounding rock. Most of the volcanoes on Earth are suspected to reside in the oceans, especially in the Mid Atlantic Ridge mountain range, which creates the oceanic crust. The video then talked about a hot spot volcano, which is a fixed place where magma comes out the the earth. As the crust moves over the hot spot, its former volcano becomes extinct and the hot spot creates a new volcano. A hot spot Shield volcano is a kind of volcano that is easily capable of spreading its lava flow for dozens of miles. Most volcanoes don’t have a crater, most are cracks in the crust called rift zones. Most land volcanoes are located on crust convergent zones, which is where the oceanic crusts and continental crust meet. These are called Composite volcanoes, which tend to be most explosive than Shield volcanoes. The video went about how magma bubbles rushes to the surface when a volcano forms, which is where holes and bubbles in some volcanic rocks come from. The video talked about the differences in the mineral and chemical make up between Shield and Composite volcanoes, Composite volcanoes contain more silicon than Shield volcanoes, which is why Composite volcanoes are most explosive. The video also talked about the different kinds of lava. The stereotypical volcano is called the Cinder cone volcano. The video went on about the relationship of volcanoes and ore deposits and clues that scientists use to predict volcanic eruptions.

Earth Revealed 14

This video was about how magma goes into crevices to from dams and dikes of “intrusive igneous rock” without ever being forced out onto the surface. The video also talked about how this process is related to plate tectonics. The geologist James Hutton came up with the idea that mountains and other geological formations were formed by volcanic magma that comes out of the Earth. The term to classify these kinds of rocks became  known as Igneous rocks, which means “fire formed rocks”. The process of when magma ascends to the surface is called intrusion, so intrusive igneous rock means magma rose close to the surface, cooled, and continued to rise until is came out onto the surface to create geological formations. If the magma erupts before it cools underground, it is called volcanic rock. The video then talked about Mafic, Felsic, and intermediate rocks. Mafic rocks contain a lot of iron and magnesium, which is why they are dark colored. Felsic rocks contain a lot of silicon and aluminium, which is why they are light colored. Intermediate rocks contain both mafic and  felsic rocks that can be seen without magnification. The video talked about how these rocks form, which has to do with when and where they cool off. The location of these rocks tell geologist the story of how they got to the surface, which helps us understand what the Earth’s interior looks like. The video went on about the formation and different types of magma. The video also talked the formations of crystals and some characteristics of rock fragments like xenoliths, batholiths, and how magma changes the chemical make up of rocks. In a nutshell, the crust and mantle is look a pressure cooker that creates different things at different levels.

Earth Revealed 15

This episode was about how atmospheric conditions is partly responsible for rock erosion and formation of soil. The video starts with the comparison of Egyptian hieroglyphs with one located in a pyramid and one location outside. The hieroglyph in the pyramid was more preserved than the hieroglyph outside because it wasn’t exposed to the weather. The video then talked about when rocks come out onto the surface, it goes through a process called exfoliation, which is the shedding of its surface. When the process of exfoliation happens, then the break down of the rock through the process called weathering becomes much easier. An example of weathering is when water gets in the cracks of rocks then expands when frozen, which then cracks the rock even more. There are different kinds of weathering mentioned in the video. The previous example was called chemical weathering. This process includes the acidification of rainwater and wind. Chemical weathering can also be called acidification. Plants may also be a kind of weathering. Another is called mechanical weathering, which is the process of the rock coming out the ground. The end result of all these methods of breaking down rocks is sedimentary rock or soil, which is what plants is essential for plant life, and therefore human life. I think that the process of weathering maybe the key thing in colonising Venus. Nature really is the ultimate teacher.

Earth Revealed 16

This episode was about mass wasting, which is the process of soil, sand, regolith, and rock moving downward as a massThis process happens because the force of gravity. The video opens with a volcanic event in South America that caused a massive mudslide. This mudslide kill about 22,000 people. The two forces that cause mass wasting are “tectonic activity” and gravity. The “tectonic activity” portion has to do with volcanic activity building mountains and earthquakes and the gravity portion leads the “mass” downward. Mass wasting, or landslides, is an often occurrence in Washington state and is why engineering geologies are hired to find out if a selected site has the potential to become a landslide. They do this by drilling into the ground to find out what the ground is made of and how it is formed. Mass wasting happens because of the instability of a slope and the steepness of the slope. They also happen because of rain and water in the soil. Human activity usually doesn’t create the condition of a potential mass wasting, but can often trigger them to happen. Triggers including construction of roads, buildings and possibly dams.  The video went on about the different kinds of mass wasting like slumps, creeps, rock slides, mudslides, debris flows, and landslides. A few years ago, I attended a court cases where a town was suing a company for causing a mudslide that hit their town. However, the verdict was the since 1500 mudslides happened in Washington in the same year this happened, it was unlikely the company caused it.

Earth Revealed 17

This episode was about exposed sedimentary rock layers and how they allow scientist to figure out the Earth’s geologic pass. Sedimentary dust is the end result of weathering and gets transported by wind and water. When sedimentary dust settles, it creates a bed, a rock layer formation that is separate from the layers above and below it. Sometimes when the dust settles on a angled landscape, it creates an angled layer called a cross-bed. Cross-beds are often associated with rivers and oceans, because of the rippling effect water. Over time, the layers compact and become cemented together from the weight over it, creating sedimentary rock. This process is called lithification. Sedimentary dust also comes together to form minerals. Most of the surface of land is made up of sedimentary rock. The video opens with the Grand Canyon and how because of its exposed layers, it is easy for geologists to decipher its history. A few of the things that geologists are able to tell from geologic history is if it was under water or if a lava flow came by. The video went on about where sedimentary dust in water can settle, like on the beach or river and ocean floors. Some of the things that geologists are able to decipher from cross-bed rocks is if it was exposed dry air because of how mud cracks. The decomposition of living things may also be in the geologic historical record, excluding fossils. If that is possible, then this would really help with determining the process of how oil is formed.

Earth Revealed 23

This episode was about how glaciers shape the landscape. Glaciers where believed to have been where they were for a million years, but in 1836 scientist Louis Agassiz discovered that the medieval inhabitants of Europe had repeatedly moved their towns away from the advancing glaciers. As glaciers retreat, the leave behind sediments that matches mountains hundreds of miles away, meaning that glaciers are a working to move and shape the landscape. The video then talked about how glaciers are made from the accumulation of snow in very cold climates over a long period of time, which is why glaciers are not found warm places like modern Australia. As snow piles on top of each other, it becomes more compact to for ice, which is a mineral. To find out how deep Glaciers where, scientist drilled holes with aluminium tubes until it hit rock. When they pull the tubes out a while later, the discovered the tube was bent, meaning that the time between the tube reaching the rock and them putting it out, the glacier had moved. Another piece of evidence that the glaciers moved was the polished rocks with glacial striations that were under them. Sometimes glaciers take much bigger rock samples with them, which is called tilling. Other ways to tell if a glacier existed, scientist look at a mountain side. Mountains with V shaped valleys didn’t have glaciers and mountains with a U shaped valley did. This is because of the ice carving into the sides as it slides slowly to the ground, making a smooth look. This process is called Basal sliding. The video went on about the different kinds of glaciers like continental and valley glaciers. The video also when on about why Ice Ages happen, thought the process is still not fully understood. And then the video talked about why the greenhouse effect is causing glaciers to melt at a fast rate.

Final Fieldwork

In my last blog, I talked about an article that describes the early Mormon law of Consecration, which is like a spiritual communism that people very willingly entered into, not forced. The Fundamentalist Mormons like to do business with each other first before doing business with those outside of their community. They are very loyal to each other and try to keep and share their finances for the community. An example of this is that Jane babysat for other women for very low wages or for nothing. They have their own community garden that feeds a lot of their poorer people, they do service projects together like building houses, and come to help those who are in great need of help. The men would go out and get jobs, bring back money and give 10% to the Priesthood, and they would spend it on their just wants and needs. All surplus they had would go the Bishop Store house, which contains stockpiles of supplies, and would be decided by the bishop on how to distribute it to the people . It is like their our banking system. The women usually stayed at home and took care of he children. Women were allowed to go and work, but usually only if she has to. They also participate in service projects with men.

aafadsssss

Marvin Jessop

Anthropology 100

Katrina Prime

6/7/16

Globalized Kenya

Long before colonialism and neo-colonialism, Kenya was a vast territory with no boarders or boundary lines. It is estimated that Kenya was settled by humans from all corners of Africa around 2000 BC. Archeological findings, however, suggest that humanoids have been there for more than 20 million years. The famous Homo erectus skeleton, known as “Turkana Boy,” was found there and is currently displayed at the Nairobi National Museum (Anthropology 100). Scientists believe that this is where human kind originated and evolved. This is why Kenya is referred to as the cradle of humanity.

Kenya is located near the Arabian Peninsula. Due to its proximity, in the first century AD, it was visited frequently by Arab traders and soon evolved into an important center of what became the Indian Ocean trade route (Humanities 240). Arab and Persian colonies were established there, and later that century, the Nilotic and Bantu people also came and settled inland. By around the 8th century Arabs, Indians, Persians and even Chinese were arriving on the Kenyan coast to trade skins, ivory, gold and spices. The first human settlers in Kenya spoke a language called Cushitic. As the population became more diverse, the language evolved into a mixture of Bantu and Arabic. This new language known as Swahili, eventually developed as the lingua franca for trade between the different peoples (Kenya).

In 1498, the Arab dominance of the Kenyan coast was taken over by the Portuguese, when they seized the Port of Mombasa.  This was a heavy blow for the Arabs as this was one of their most important ports. It was located near to the Red Sea and had been used by the Arabs for centuries as a stop where their ships could resupply before going on to the Far East. Two hundred years later, the Portuguese lost their control over the region.  They were ousted by the Islamic leader, Imam of Oman in 1698 after a 33-month siege. By 1730 all the Portuguese had left the East African coast for Mozambique (Kenya).

This is an old example of globalization. The Arabs influenced the native Kenyan culture by introducing trade with the outside world and by altering their language to suit the Arabs need to better control the population. When the Portuguese came, they had a similar effect.

The European colonial history of Kenya goes back to the Berlin Conference of 1885, when Africa was divided into territories of influence by the European powers. Among other territories, the British Government was given the land of Kenya.  Soon after, they opened its fertile highlands to white settlers (Kenya).

Before Kenya was officially declared a British colony in 1920, the white settlers were allowed a voice in government, while the Africans and the Asians were banned from direct political participation until 1944. During this period, 32,000 Indians were brought into Kenya to work on building the Kenya Uganda Railway Line (Kenya). Many stayed after it was completed, as did most of the Indian traders and small businessmen.

Then in October 1952 to December 1959, Kenya was put under a “state of emergency” because of the Mau Mau rebellion against British colonial rule. As a result, thousands of Kenyans were incarcerated in detention camps (Humanities). By 1956, the death toll stood at more than 13,500 Africans and about 100 Europeans (Kenya). In 1959 Jomo Kenyatta, one of the original Mau Mau leaders, was released from prison. In 1960 the British government officially announced their plan to transfer power to a democratically elected African government. Kenyatta became president of KANU (Kenya African National Union) in October 1961, then Kenya’s first prime minister in December 12, 1963, the same day that Kenya got its independence. The following year, Kenya became a Republic with Kenyatta as its first President. That same year Kenya joined the British Commonwealth.

Before European colonialism, the Kenyans cooperated with each other. They worked together to survive, and their political system was built around supporting the community, not states. The influence of globalization here was that the Europeans made the Kenyans whole society dependent on the European knowledge, because they were introduced to advanced technology, medicine, and political systems and because their old way of live was forgotten, so they couldn’t go back to it. After they got their independence, they adopted the English language to do business with other countries and the European political system, like presidents and prime ministers.

The majority of Kenyans do not believe globalization has improved their lives. An open global market economy will provide benefits, Kenyans believe, only when government is effective and efficient. (Lehmann). In other words, they think their government sucks. In its early years Kenya was quite a successful country, praised as a model African market economy, especially in contrast to its neighbors. However, the death of Kenya’s first president, Jomo Kenyatta, in 1978, created an unexpected turn for Kenya. Its politics fell apart and this contributed to Kenya’s rapid decline. Kenya’s average Gross Domestic Product per capita fell from $500 to about $300. The UN’s 2003 Human Development Index ranked Kenya 146th out of 175 countries. During the 1980’s, Kenya also had serious problems when the collapse of its commodity-based economy left the country deep in debt, and persistent corruption and neglect of basic infrastructure and services stalled economic development. “Still,” writes Lehmann, “the country has key assets that should enable it to participate in a global economy”(Nelima).

Social and economic division have risen dramatically as a direct result of globalization. The majority of Kenyans still live in grinding poverty, an estimated fifty-six percent, while the elite have beautiful fenced in residential homes, offices, and leisure spaces. Another serious issue, in a country with little access to health care, is the HIV/AIDS epidemic. An estimated 15 percent are infected with HIV/AIDS, and life expectancy has fallen to 45 years. (Lehmann).

Compared to many other African countries, Kenya has a very successful education system, and its society is mostly free of the ethnic violence that still plagues many of their neighbors. It is also a land of vast natural beauty which attracts tourists from all over the world.

Globalization has contributed a few good things to Kenya. The World Bank-IMF’s Structural Adjustment Programs of the 1980s and 1990s played an important role in liberalizing their economy for the benefit of domestic and global capital. Nairobi, the capital of Kenya, has taken great steps in developing its global trade, transport, communications, financial, and investment connections since the 1980s due to large tourist flows to Kenya and the ongoing concentration of multinational corporations, international NGOs, and UN agencies in the city.

Moreover, the city’s global distribution and consumption role has benefited from the increased emigration of Kenyans to richer countries and the subsequent increase in remittances, continuing regional political instability in East and Central Africa and the ensuing relocation of wealthy Somalis, Rwandese, & Congolese to the city and, the increasing role of Nairobi in aspects of the global underground economy (Nelima).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Citation:

Anthropology 100 (Class I’m Taking)

Humanities 240 (Class I’m Taking)

Kenya “A Brief History on Kenya” Embassy of the Republic of Kenya in Japan

Lehmann, Jean-Pierre: “Kenya: Globalizing with flowers” YaleGlobal April 9, 2004.

Nelima: “The Globalization of African Cities: The Case of Nairobi Kenya” Minneafrica April 21, 2009

JJAA

Marvin Jessop

Anthropology 100

Katrina Prime

6/7/16

Globalized Kenya

Early History

Before neo-colonialism, Kenya was a vast territory with no boarders or boundary lines. It is estimated that Kenya was settled by humans from all corners of Africa around 2000 BC. Archeological findings, however, suggest that humanoids have been there for more than 20 million years. The famous Homo Erectus skeleton, known as “Turkana Boy,” was found there and is currently displayed at the Nairobi National Museum. Scientists believe that this is where human kind originated and evolved. This is why Kenya is referred to as the cradle of humanity.

The first human settlers in Kenya spoke a language called Cushitic. Kenya is located near the Arabian Peninsula. Due to its proximity, in the first century AD, it was visited frequently by Arab traders and soon evolved into an important center of what became the Indian Ocean trade route. Arab and Persian colonies were established there, and later that century, the Nilotic and Bantu people also came and settled inland. By around the 8th century Arabs, Indians, Persians and even Chinese were arriving on the Kenyan coast to trade skins, ivory, gold and spices. As the population became more diverse, the language evolved into a mixture of Bantu and Arabic. This new language known as Swahili, eventually developed as the lingua franca for trade between the different peoples.

In 1498, the Arab dominance of the Kenyan coast was taken over by the Portuguese, when they seized the Port of Mombasa.  This was a heavy blow for the Arabs as this was one of their most important ports. It was located near to the Red Sea and had been used by the Arabs for centuries as a stop where their ships could resupply before going on to the Far East. Two hundred years later, the Portuguese lost their control over the region.  They were ousted by the Islamic leader, Imam of Oman in 1698 after a 33-month siege. By 1730 all the Portuguese had left the East African coast for Mozambique.

Colonialism

The modern colonial history of Kenya goes back to the Berlin Conference of 1885, when Africa was divided into territories of influence by the European powers. Among other territories, the British Government was given the land of Kenya.  Soon after, they opened its fertile highlands to white settlers.

Before Kenya was officially declared a British colony in 1920, the white settlers were allowed a voice in government, while the Africans and the Asians were banned from direct political participation until 1944. During this period, 32,000 Indians were brought into Kenya to work on building the Kenya Uganda Railway Line. Many stayed after it was completed, as did most of the Indian traders and small businessmen.

Then in October 1952 to December 1959, Kenya was put under a “state of emergency” because of the Mau Mau rebellion against British colonial rule. As a result, thousands of Kenyans were incarcerated in detention camps. By 1956, the death toll stood at more than 13,500 Africans and about 100 Europeans. In 1959 Jomo Kenyatta, one of the original Mau Mau leaders, was released from prison. In 1960 the British government officially announced their plan to transfer power to a democratically elected African government. Kenyatta became president of KANU (Kenya African National Union) in October 1961, then Kenya’s first prime minister in December 12, 1963, the same day that Kenya got its independence. The following year, Kenya became a Republic with Kenyatta as its first President. That same year Kenya joined the British Commonwealth.

Globalization

The majority of Kenyans do not believe globalization has improved their lives. An open global market economy will provide benefits, Kenyans believe, only when government is effective and efficient. (Lehmann). In its early years Kenya was quite a successful country, praised as a model African market economy, especially in contrast to its neighbors. However, the death of Kenya’s first president, Jomo Kenyatta, in 1978, created an unexpected turn for Kenya. Its politics fell apart and this contributed to Kenya’s rapid decline. Kenya’s average Gross Domestic Product per capita fell from $500 to about $300. The UN’s 2003 Human Development Index ranked Kenya 146th out of 175 countries.

Social and economic division have risen dramatically as a direct result of globalization. The majority of Kenyans still live in grinding poverty, an estimated fifty-six percent, while the elite have beautiful, fenced in residential homes, offices, and leisure spaces.  {ELABORATE} Loss of community Seeking for wealth and prestige.

During the 1980’s, Kenya had serious problems when the collapse of its commodity-based economy left the country deep in debt, and persistent corruption and neglect of basic infrastructure and services stalled economic development. “Still,” writes Lehmann, “the country has key assets that should enable it to participate in a global economy”(Nelima).

Another serious issue, in a country with little access to health care, is the HIV/AIDS epidemic. An estimated 15 percent are infected with HIV/AIDS, and life expectancy has fallen to 45 years. (Lehmann).

Compared to many other African countries, Kenya has a very successful education system, and its society is mostly free of the ethnic violence that still plagues many of their neighbors. It is also a land of vast natural beauty which attracts tourists from all over the world.

Globalization has contributed a few good things to Kenya. The World Bank-IMF’s Structural Adjustment Programs of the 1980s and 1990s played an important role in liberalizing their economy for the benefit of domestic and global capital. Nairobi, the capital of Kenya, has taken great steps in developing its global trade, transport, communications, financial, and investment connections since the 1980s due to large tourist flows to Kenya and the ongoing concentration of multinational corporations, international NGOs, and UN agencies in the city. Moreover, the city’s global distribution and consumption role has benefited from the increased emigration of Kenyans to richer countries and the subsequent increase in remittances, continuing regional political instability in East and Central Africa and the ensuing relocation of wealthy Somalis, Rwandese, & Congolese to the city and, the increasing role of Nairobi in aspects of the global underground economy (Nelima).

XXX   = Focus on what the culture was like BEFORE Globalization What worked, and what has been lost or destroyed.

NAIROBI: How many people know that there is a high probability that in Europe most flowers given to loved ones on St Valentine’s Day come from Kenya? Since the country’s independence in 1963, and especially in recent years, horticulture has emerged as one of Kenya’s great economic success stories. Flowers picked in the morning reach the markets in Amsterdam by evening. Horticulture is the country’s fastest growing sector and is ranked third (after tourism and tea) as a foreign exchange earner. At a time when most foreign investors are wary of committing money in Kenya, horticulture is one of the few industries that continue to attract foreign investment. However, horticulture does not need to be the only shining star of Kenya’s global economic success. The country’s political and economic openness places it in a good position to benefit from globalization.

Kenya’s low level of human development is partly due to economic circumstances. As with many sub-Saharan African countries, Kenya’s commodity-based economy – and its export earnings – was hard-hit when commodity prices collapsed in the late 1970s and 80s. The collapse caused the country’s debt service to more than double, from 16 percent in 1980 to 34 percent in 1990.

But the country has also suffered abysmal national governance. As a result of almost 25 years of corruption and neglect of basic services and infrastructure, Kenya is in dire straits. The World Economic Forum’s 2001 Africa Competitiveness Report ranked Kenya 22nd among 24 countries, surpassing only Zimbabwe and Madagascar. The 2003 Index of Economic Freedom gives Kenya a poor mark as “mostly unfree”. The most telling indicator, perhaps, is Transparency International’s “corruption perception index”, in which Kenya ranks 122nd amongst 133 countries.

Kenya has certain key assets that enable it to participate in the global economy. First, it is a breathtakingly beautiful country, endowed with a fantastic climate. Though tourism declined because of terrorist attacks in 1998 and 2002, the sector is expected to revive soon.

Second, Kenya boasts a stable society devoid of the sectarian and ethnic violence and conflict that characterizes most sub-Saharan African nations. Geographic borders of nations in sub-Saharan Africa reflect a colonial legacy rather than the ethnic, religious, and linguistic landscape of the region’s inhabitants. This has led to wars, massacres, and other inter-ethnic hostilities in many African countries. In Kenya’s region of Africa, Somalia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Congo and Mozambique have all suffered from internal strife. Kenya, in spite of a population composed of over forty different tribes and a large Christian majority and a strong Muslim minority (10%), has had neither conflicts nor secessionist movements.

Third, Kenya is an exceptionally tolerant society. As in many other countries of East Africa, Kenya has a successful merchant Indian minority. Unlike the violent discrimination against the Indian minority that characterized Idi Amin’s brutal regime in Uganda, Indians in Kenya comprise an economically prosperous community. This is also true of the local European (mainly British) population.

Fourth, Kenya’s integration within the global economy is also facilitated by a well functioning and successful education system. Male literacy is 90%, a high for any nation, especially one as poor as Kenya. Although female literacy is at 80% – a gender disparity that needs to be addressed – it compares favourably to most developing countries.

More recently, Kenya has seen the development of a garment industry and the creation of export processing zones, spearheaded by the Clinton administration’s African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). As mentioned, horticultural is very successful, as is tea, in spite of the competition from Vietnam. Other sectors, notably sugar and coffee, have suffered from mismanagement and excessive government intervention. Kenya is a major “exporter” of nurses, doctors, and teachers, who are an important source of remittances. At the macro level, Kenya has been able to limit inflation to an average annual rate of 2.5% in the last decade.

Citation:

Lehmann, Jean-Pierre: “Kenya: Globalizing with flowers” YaleGlobal April 9, 2004.

Nelima: “The Globalization of African Cities: The Case of Nairobi Kenya” Minneafrica April 21, 2009

 

asdfafdasf

Marvin Jessop

Anthropology 100

Katrina Prime

6/7/16

Globalized Kenya

History

Before globalization and colonialism, Kenya was a territory with no boarder lines. It is estimated that Kenya was settled by humans from all corners of Africa around 2000 BC. Archeological findings, however, suggest that humanoids have been there more than 20 million years ago. The famous Homo erectus skeleton known as Turkana Boy, is displayed at the Nairobi National Museum. This is why Kenya is referred to as the cradle of humanity.

The language the first human settlers in Kenya spoke was Cushitic. In the 1st century AD, Kenya’s coast was visited frequently by Arab traders because of its proximity to the Arabian Peninsula, and so Arab and Persian colonies were established there. Later in the same century, the Nilotic and Bantu people also came and settled inland. The Swahili language, a mixture of Bantu and Arabic then developed as a lingua franca for trade between the different peoples.By around the 8th century Arabs, Indians, Persians and even Chinese were arriving on the Kenyan coast to trade skins, ivory, gold and spices.

Then in 1498, the Portuguese arrived and the Arab dominance on the coast was taken, which was a blow for Arab because the Port of Mombasa was used by them to resupply stop for ships that were going to the Far East. The Portuguese built Fort Jesus in 1593, which today is one of Mombasa’s top tourist attractions. They gave way to Islamic control under the Imam of Oman in 1698 after a 33-month siege. By 1730 all the Portuguese had left the East African coast for Mozambique.

Colonialism

The colonial history of Kenya go back to the Berlin Conference in 1885, when Africa was divided into territories of influence by the European powers. One of the territories the British Government got was Kenya where they opened its fertile highlands to white settlers. Before Kenya was officially declared a British colony in 1920, the white settlers were allowed a voice in government, while the Africans and the Asians were banned from direct political participation until 1944. During this period 32,000 Indians were brought into Kenya to work on building the Kenya Uganda Railway Line. Many stayed after it was completed, as did most of the Indian traders and small businessmen.

Then in October 1952 to December 1959, Kenya was put under a “state of emergency” because of the Mau Mau rebellion against British colonial rule. As a result, thousands of Kenyans were incarcerated in detention camps. By 1956, the death toll stood at more than 13,500 Africans and about 100 Europeans. In 1959 Jomo Kenyatta, one of the original Mau Mau leaders, was released from prison. In 1960 the British government officially announced their plan to transfer power to a democratically elected African government. Kenyatta became president of KANU (Kenya African National Union) in October 1961, then Kenya’s first prime minister in December 12, 1963, the day Kenya got independence. The following year, Kenya became a Republic with Kenyatta as its first President. In the same year Kenya joined the British Commonwealth.

Globalization

The majority of Kenyans do not believe globalization has improved their lives. An open global market economy will provide benefits, Kenyans believe, only when government is effective and efficient.(Lehmann). In its early years Kenya was quite a success story, praised as a model African market economy, especially in contrast to its neighbor, Tanzania, which had embarked on a quasi-Maoist form of communal development. However, the death of Kenya’s first president, Jomo Kenyatta, in 1978, destabilized politics and contributed to Kenya’s rapid decline. Kenya’s average GDP per capita fell from $500 to about $300. The UN’s 2003 Human Development Index ranks Kenya 146th out of 175 countries

The positive effects of globalization in Kenya is the World Bank-IMF’s Structural Adjustment Programs of the 1980s and 1990s played an important role in liberalizing their economy for the benefit of domestic and global capital. Nairobi, the capital of Kenya, has made great steps developing its global trade, transport, communications, financial, and investment connections since the 1980s due to large tourist flows to Kenya and the ongoing concentration of multinational corporations, international NGOs, and UN agencies in the city. Moreover, the city’s global distribution and consumption role has benefited from the increased emigration of Kenyans to richer countries and the subsequent increase in remittances, continuing regional political instability in East and Central Africa and the ensuing relocation of wealthy Somalis, Rwandese, & Congolese to the city and, the increasing role of Nairobi in aspects of the global underground economy (Nelima).

The negative effects of globalization has risen its social and economic division. The majority of Kenyans are still poor where as the elite have fenced residential homes, offices, and leisure spaces. Kenya has had serious problems in the 1980s with the collapse of its commodity-based economy left the country deep in debt, and persistent corruption and neglect of basic infrastructure and services have stalled economic development. Still, writes Lehmann, the country has “key assets that should enable it to participate in a global economy”(Nelima). Kenya is a pretty well of country because of their successful education system, natural beauty that draws tourists, and a society mostly free of the ethnic violence that is still happening in other countries close by. 56 percent of the population lives in extreme poverty. An estimated 15 percent are infected with HIV/AIDS, and life expectancy has fallen to 45 years (Lehmann).

 

XXX

NAIROBI: How many people know that there is a high probability that in Europe most flowers given to loved ones on St Valentine’s Day come from Kenya? Since the country’s independence in 1963, and especially in recent years, horticulture has emerged as one of Kenya’s great economic success stories. Flowers picked in the morning reach the markets in Amsterdam by evening. Horticulture is the country’s fastest growing sector and is ranked third (after tourism and tea) as a foreign exchange earner. At a time when most foreign investors are wary of committing money in Kenya, horticulture is one of the few industries that continue to attract foreign investment. However, horticulture does not need to be the only shining star of Kenya’s global economic success. The country’s political and economic openness places it in a good position to benefit from globalization.

Kenya’s low level of human development is partly due to economic circumstances. As with many sub-Saharan African countries, Kenya’s commodity-based economy – and its export earnings – was hard-hit when commodity prices collapsed in the late 1970s and 80s. The collapse caused the country’s debt service to more than double, from 16 percent in 1980 to 34 percent in 1990.

But the country has also suffered abysmal national governance. As a result of almost 25 years of corruption and neglect of basic services and infrastructure, Kenya is in dire straits. The World Economic Forum’s 2001 Africa Competitiveness Report ranked Kenya 22nd among 24 countries, surpassing only Zimbabwe and Madagascar. The 2003 Index of Economic Freedom gives Kenya a poor mark as “mostly unfree”. The most telling indicator, perhaps, is Transparency International’s “corruption perception index”, in which Kenya ranks 122nd amongst 133 countries.

Kenya has certain key assets that enable it to participate in the global economy. First, it is a breathtakingly beautiful country, endowed with a fantastic climate. Though tourism declined because of terrorist attacks in 1998 and 2002, the sector is expected to revive soon.

Second, Kenya boasts a stable society devoid of the sectarian and ethnic violence and conflict that characterizes most sub-Saharan African nations. Geographic borders of nations in sub-Saharan Africa reflect a colonial legacy rather than the ethnic, religious, and linguistic landscape of the region’s inhabitants. This has led to wars, massacres, and other inter-ethnic hostilities in many African countries. In Kenya’s region of Africa, Somalia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Congo and Mozambique have all suffered from internal strife. Kenya, in spite of a population composed of over forty different tribes and a large Christian majority and a strong Muslim minority (10%), has had neither conflicts nor secessionist movements.

Third, Kenya is an exceptionally tolerant society. As in many other countries of East Africa, Kenya has a successful merchant Indian minority. Unlike the violent discrimination against the Indian minority that characterized Idi Amin’s brutal regime in Uganda, Indians in Kenya comprise an economically prosperous community. This is also true of the local European (mainly British) population.

Fourth, Kenya’s integration within the global economy is also facilitated by a well functioning and successful education system. Male literacy is 90%, a high for any nation, especially one as poor as Kenya. Although female literacy is at 80% – a gender disparity that needs to be addressed – it compares favourably to most developing countries.

More recently, Kenya has seen the development of a garment industry and the creation of export processing zones, spearheaded by the Clinton administration’s African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). As mentioned, horticultural is very successful, as is tea, in spite of the competition from Vietnam. Other sectors, notably sugar and coffee, have suffered from mismanagement and excessive government intervention. Kenya is a major “exporter” of nurses, doctors, and teachers, who are an important source of remittances. At the macro level, Kenya has been able to limit inflation to an average annual rate of 2.5% in the last decade.

Citation:

Lehmann, Jean-Pierre: “Kenya: Globalizing with flowers” YaleGlobal April 9, 2004.

Nelima: “The Globalization of African Cities: The Case of Nairobi Kenya” Minneafrica April 21, 2009.

 

dis

 

Marvin Jessop

Humanities 240

Gerard Dolmans

6/6/16

Lumumba and the Congo Discussion Notes

There was a lot that attributed to Lumumba’s demise. There was his faith in those he trusted to do the right thing, even when it was obvious that they wouldn’t, his ignorance of politics, which led him to be hasty in his decision making, the Europeans expectation that Congo would revert back to their old ways, which was why the Belgians were around in case they needed their “help”, the Katanga rebellion, which the movie showed at the beginning to have something to do with a dispute their leaders had with Lumumba, and the bad timing for the Congo to get independence because of the cold war, which Europeans and Americans feared would submit to the U.S.S.R.’s control.

When he was appointed Prime Minister, he appointed Mobutu as a military leader because his military history makes him an ideal candidate. However, during the Civil war with Katanga, Mobutu’s men killed indiscriminately and made the Congolese and Lumumba look bad. Despite Lumumba being furious, he let him remain in power. I don’t know want I would have done if I were in his shoes, but I still think that keeping a psycho in power is not a good idea.

In the movie, he stared at selling beer, not in public office, which lead me to assume that he was ignorant of how politics worked, and how he was not cautious to not piss off the leaders of Katanga, which is something I don’t think someone should do during their rise to power. Another example of his ignorance in politics was when he made big promises to the people. I know that our politicians do that, but we already have independence and are pretty well off. The Congo is a different story. They had no independence, no stable system of government or military, which was shown when they came bursting into the office threatening him to get rid of the white military officers or they would kill the ones they had in custody, along with their families, which probably would have most defiantly caused Belgium to respond in kind. Point being is that he was not cautious in a dangerous time in Congo.

In the movie, before the Congo got it independence, the prime minister of Belgium (I assume) was in a room of other Belgium leaders and said that he expected the country to fall into chaos within a manner of months. That scene was just to illustrate Europe’s expectations. When shit was hitting the fan, the Belgians did not make his job any easier. They kept showing up with their military, making it awkward for Lumumba, undermining his ability to keep the country under control and giving the impression to those present that he needed the Belgians help to win the civil war.

And the final factor that lead to the death of Lumumba was the timing of Congo’s independence. The Cold War came to Africa to seize control over valuable resources such as uranium, the key ingredient to making a nuclear bomb, which both sides where stock piling. Funny enough, Katanga had uranium resources and it was under the control of the rebels. So Lumumba had to deal with a civil war along with the threats of being taken over by the Americans or the U.S.S.R. because they wanted their uranium.

What killed Lumumba? It was his trust in Mobutu, his lack of political knowledge, the interference of Belgium’s military, the Congo civil war, and the Cold War. The odds were stacked against him from the start. I bet even if he had more political knowledge, he probably still would he been killed because it was so bad. He did the best he could, but in the end, I doubt that anyone could have done any better. My hat’s off to him.

Week 9 blog

Last week, I talked about how the Fundamentalist Mormons gave a lot to the church, like money, resources, and their time and energy. It turns out that is an actual law of theirs. The article “Morality as the enemy of equality:Law, economy, and moral responsibility in the early Mormon church” talked about the law of Consecration, which is when everyone gives all that they have to the church and in return they are given stewardship over land or cattle or anything that is of value to their church. It was first applied in 1831 but failed in 1834. Stone goes on to say that the members resistance to the law of Consecration caused it to failed in the Mormon church because it “worked to impair the expresson of their own moral impulse” (pg.69).

Jane, however, thinks that their is more to it. She thinks it also failed because of the collapse of banks , which lead to the Financial Panic of 1837, and because of apostasy among members. “A lot of people were angry at the Prophet Joseph Smith due to the failure of the Banks in Kirtland Ohio, which he himself help build”. They tried again in Far West Missouri, but was chased out by the locals. The same thing happened in Nauvoo Illinois a few years later. Then they finally found a permanant place to settle down, Salt Lake Valley, Utah. Over time, certain mormon practices were seen as unecessary, like plural marriage. Some time later the Fundamentalists broke away from the church, becasue they felt that the original teachings of the Mormon Gospel where to be kept, like plural marriage and the law of Consecration. Normal Mormons don’t practice the law  of Consecration, instead they have what are called “callings”, which are job positions that the church needs done. Examples like librarian, bishop, and choir director.

So to some it up, Jane thinks that it failed because of the hardship that the Mormons faced in the early years and because of the Financal Panic that happened.

The three concepts that will help me better understand the FLDS is the 1. the law of Consecration. 2. the hardship early Mormons faced. And 3. the FLDS breaking away from normal Mormons.

Note: I realized that the two last concepts are not from the article, however, i feel that Jane, who lives in a community where the law of Consecration is still practiced, has more legit information than an article that came out in 1999 that states that the law was doomed to fail.

Citations:

Jane: Secret identity- source of FLDS information.

Stone, Thomas:”Morality as the enemy of equality: Law, economy, and moral responsibility in the early Mormon church”. State University of New York, Department of Anthropology, Postdam, NY 13676. pg. 1-73. Dec. 1999.